With the sixth week of embryonic development, almost at the same time with these organs, such as the heart and lungs, milk glands begin to form in children. First, in the embryonic tissue (мезенхиме) appear to be the dense germination of the Epidermis, the cavity from the armpit to the wells up to the groin. Later, these structures develop in the acini and remain only in the area of the chest. And the nipples are formed in the perinatal period (after 22 weeks gestation) – the distribution of the underlying areoles mesenchyme. In newborns of both sexes nipples in small depressions and shortly after birth, by Proliferation of the surrounding connective tissue, a normal Form. All of this physiology.
However, many pathological processes, which may not occur glands according to the age of breast enlargement in children, as well as redness or sealing of milk in children.
Chest in children the first year of life
The majority of full-term babies in the first life of hormones days – due to the termination of the influx of mothers into the bloodstream – the so-called sexual crisis. 3-4 days after birth, engorgement, or breast happens to margins in growing children and in the next 5-7 days. Can redness of the mammary gland of the child from the nipple of the smaller volume of the allocation of milk can occur-similar fluid. These doctors phenomenon is also newborn as a physiological mastopathy.
As the kids say doctors, occur seal mammary glands in children – directly under the nipple. Education is always individual, in the size up to 2-3 cm vanish for a couple of weeks It can, and can not happen in the course of several months, until the child is breastfed, some children have increased sensitivity to the hormone пролактину, contains the mother's milk.
The parents should know that it is not a disease but is a specific reaction of the organism of the child. You need to consult a doctor, but nothing to handle do not need, you should Hygiene carefully. Because their non-observance entails mastitis useful (inflammation of the breast) neonatal, which will be able to go to a abscess.
And in this case, the causes of the diseases of mammary glands in children in the infant-infection, the most common, staphylos or Streptococcus, and the development of the inflammatory process, which must be treated (see below).
Chest in children of more Mature age
Breast enlargement in a child before puberty, especially in girls up to 8 years old, is a mistake. According to the Definition of the doctors, this premature telarche, i.e. the beginning of the development of the milk girl's glands before the accession of puberty (which begins after 10 years). Premature telarche is considered to be a benign, isolated condition, so to say, a local process that is in the development of the mammary glands without other secondary sexual characteristics.
Its causes may include hives, problems with the eggs (cysts), adrenal or thyroid gland (hypothyroidism), as well as the use of exogenous hormones or drugs. So, a few years ago, Turkish researcher (Gazi University, Ankara) have found that the long-term use of fennel is used to control the operation of the intestine in infants and the relief of symptoms of flatulence, caused breast enlargement in a child and can lead to early breast development in girls up to two years. The fact that the biologically active substances of this plant stimulate the synthesis of estrogen.
It should also be taken into account that the asymmetrical development of the mammary glands in girls up to the age of 12 years, in accordance with the specifics of this process: a iron (usually the left) develops earlier than echo, but in the end, the chest is symmetrical.
According to some data, approximately 4% of girls with premature telarche the Central precocious puberty. What does this mean? If there is breast development in girls starts earlier, 8 years old and accompanied by the appearance of hair-pubic, and underarm areas. Today, there is good reason to believe one of the main causes of this disease is due to mutations in the genes of the Leptin (Lep) and Leptin receptor (Lepr) – пептидного hormone of adipose tissue, responsible for regulating the exchange of energy in the body. According to studies by endocrinologists, breast enlargement in children in nearly 80% of cases of age-related metric occurs when exceeding the mass of the body on the average of 9-10 kg.
The causes of the diseases of mammary glands in children
Experts cite the following reasons for diseases of the chest in children, as well as their pathological development:
- Damage to the System of the brain (due to infection, Trauma, intracranial Novo formation, or radiation therapy), slows down the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, which leads to premature release of gonadotropic hormones – luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating (FSH);
- Mature hypogonadism (decreased testosterone levels in boys, based on the functional insufficiency of the testes);
- Cyst of the ovary;
- Tumors of the ovary;
- congenital hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex;
- эмбриональную Tumor of the Hypothalamus;
- Tumor pineal body (pinealom);
- Syndrome McKune-Albright (innate increased production of somatotropic growth Hormone, GH).
Chest in children of both sexes, overweight, often enlarged; a Tumor consisting of fat cells, surrounded by connective tissue – lipoma breast.
In the case of the young the age of puberty (12 years) it is a breast are enlargement, the so-called juvenile gynecomastia. Your reason is in the age group increase in the production by the pituitary gland follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In the result of a temporary imbalance in the sex hormones that goes with the time.
Pain in the milk glands of the child, as well as the hardening of tissue in the area of the nipple can injury the result of a small.
To be identified in adolescents against the background of particularly this age, hormonal instability, FIBRO-cystic, and hyperlastic changes in the breast:
- Cyst of the mammary gland in a child (benign rounded education in the Form of a cavity with inner content);
- Hyperplasia of the mammary glands of the child – see hyperplasia of the mammary glands
- fibroadenoma (mobile benign Tumor)
The prognosis for most varieties of benign FIBRO-cystic mastopathy cheap. However, with significant epithelial Proliferation of breast tissue, there is a danger of malignant Transformation of the neoplasia.
Breast cancer in children
In pediatric practice breast cancer in children is rarely diagnosed. Most of the problems with the milk glands in childhood benign mastopathy are solved, and many without any special treatment.
Nevertheless, there are juvenile secretory carcinoma – a rare Form of the disease, most common in teenage girls. Secretory carcinoma of the breast is a special type of invasive cancer, which is characteristic for minors patients. He develops slowly in the Form of small, poorly defined on the single or multiple ultrasonic nodular neoplasia (size 0.5-3.5 cm) in the ducts of the breast. The peculiarity of this type of tumors consists in the periodic secretory secretions of the tumor cells; also in new-formations of micro calcification.
Breast cancer in children at puberty as a phylloid cystosarcoma is also one of the rare diagnoses. But it is a very aggressive Tumor, an exciting and parenchyma breast, and her pale skin.
There are also other types of cancer, the tissue in the Form of metastases in the breast – for example, Lymphoma, the lymph nodes in the area of the breast and armpit wells; leukemia, soft tissue sarcoma, neuroblastoma, etc.
The causes of the diseases of mammary glands in the child in the event of a finding of Oncology often as jumps puberty, as well as with predisposition, maternal inherited, in particular mutations of the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. According to the American National Cancer Institute (NCI), BRCA1 Mutation, the risk for breast cancer (and ovarian cancer) increased to 55-65% and BRCA2 genes-mutations – to 45%.
Symptoms of diseases of mammary glands in the child
We list briefly the typical symptoms of diseases of mammary glands in children.
In the case of mastitis in the newborn enlargement of the mammary gland observed: with the sealing surface of the subcutaneous tissue; redness; pain; high body temperature (up to +38°C); may be loss of appetite, digestive disorders (vomiting, diarrhea). In the development of the abscess temperature reached 39°C, in the area of the redness of the purulent Infiltration is formed, the child is inhibited and refrains from the chest.
For juvenile gynecomastia in boys, characterized by: a similar edema breast tenderness in children below the nipple with increased sensitivity of the nipples. And, in the case of gynecomastia associated with hypogonadism, young Breasts to form painful to the touch of the seal, and there are such symptoms as under-development of the secondary sexual organs, the excess fat tissue on the torso, the pallor of the skin, lethargy, sleeping disorders, and others.
The symptoms of FIBRO-cystic abnormalities, and hyperplasia of breast cancer in teenage girls can be in the Form of breast augmentation after the cessation of Menstruation, feelings of fullness in the chest, swelling and mastalgia (pain of different intensity), the availability in the tissues of the Breasts or more elastic firm roundish nodules or elongated (scar tissue) neoplasia In the case of the fibrous pathologies education develop in the upper quadrant of the gland. Greater education may lead to the change of shape of the glands or their asymmetry. In the affected area, the color of the skin, the nipple and possible liquid discharge can change. In the presence of cysts that localized in growing under the nipple, which often has the skin in the area of the nipple a bluish tint.
Note that in many cases, the data of the pathology, no symptoms, and neoplasia occur undetectable by accident.
Breast cancer can the child show almost the same symptoms. In addition, discomfort and pain are often felt in the area of the armpit, grips, nipple little nipple retracted, and the skin may peel appearance on the breast, such as orange.
The diagnosis of breast pathology in children
The clinical diagnosis of the pathologies of the chest in children is made on the basis of the survey begins with the examination of the child and collection of the medical history (including family).
In order to determine the level of hormones in the Serum (such as estradiol, prolactin, testosterone, LH, FSH, 17-OPG and DHEA-S, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Somatropin), you must give biochemical analysis of blood. Also, the blood is examined for AFP – Marker germicogenic tumors, Alpha-Fetoprotein, and markers of tumor growth.
Intended only breast ultrasound child, but also ultrasound sonography, the thyroid, the adrenals and the organs of the small pelvis is not. Mammography children.
Differential diagnosis of pathologies of the chest in children is done with the help of a Computer or nuclear spin tomography of the adrenal glands and structures of the brain: the pituitary, the Hypothalamus.
In the case of FIBRO-cystic and hyperplastic changes in the mammary glands – exceptions for Oncology fine-needle aspiration biopsy formation with histological examination of the resulting biopsy.
Treatment of diseases of the chest in children
Same treatment for all diseases of the chest in children is impossible, and therapeutic methods of the specific diagnosis.
So, breast clamping needs in children in the first months of life in the treatment, but in the case of mastitis without antibiotics, and sometimes Drainage of the abscess (the surgeon is in the hospital). And the best prevention of Mastitis in infants – perfect cleanliness and the proper care for the child.
Treatment of the early development of breast cancer requires no treatment. However, you must keep track of all the changes in the size of the mammary glands girls.
More about how early puberty treat, read – precocious puberty – treatment
Breast education for the young is also monitoring requires, when the Juvenile gynecomastia is not spontaneously a few years after the Declaration of the diagnosis, the doctor-endocrinologist – on the basis of the results of the analysis on the level of hormones in the blood – a treatment with hormonal medicines and recommend you to wear the Bandage on the chest.
In the case of large amounts of fatty tissue, your pumping out (liposuction).
Mastitis to gynecologists are treated in girls in the period of maturity in the children. But come to the aid of other specialists, since the etiology of the cystic formation associated with the thyroid and hyperplasia of the mammary glands of the child may occur because of the neuro-endocrine abnormalities and disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal System.
The Oncology treatment of diseases of the chest in children, the mi is the same methods as in adults (surgically, chemotherapy).